Facts about the Forearm Muscle

The forearm muscle has a variety of uses. It is located on the lower part of the arm as whole, between the elbow and the wrist. Many day to day activities would not be possible if the muscles located in the forearm were inactive.

The lower part of the human arm has two bones inside of it. The radius and the ulna run the length of the forearm to provide it with internal structure and strength. The forearm muscle as a whole is actually comprised of many muscles that work together. Many of these muscles function as flexors, as they allow other parts of the body to move. The forearm muscles contain flexors that move the fingers and the elbow and pronator muscles and supinator muscles that allow the hand to move to a face up or face down position. A complete list of the muscles found in the forearm includes the: Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Biceps brachii, Pronator teres, Palmaris longus, Flexor retinaculum, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis.

There are three nerves located inside of the forearm that supply the ability for these types of movements. These three nerves are the ulnar nerve, the radial nerve and the median nerve. In order to function properly, the forearm muscles are supplied with blood from the ulnar and radial arteries.  These bones, muscles, nerves and arteries are covered with tissue, blood vessels and skin to make the forearm a complete package.

Injury to the forearm muscles can be very painful. The bones inside can be easily broken from blunt trauma or twisting. The muscles are also susceptible to strains, sprains and tears. Symptoms of these types of muscle injuries can include pain, swelling, bruising and heat. Often these muscle injuries can take several weeks to heal completely. Muscle spasms, twitching, weakness and throbbing can also affect the muscle groups of the forearm. Most of the time these kinds of problems are caused by overworking the muscle of the forearm, which is often referred to as tendonitis. Because the movements of the hand stem from the pronator and supinator flexor muscles located in the forearm, repetitive hand movements can lead to forearm pain. Some repetitive movements like gripping, typing or writing can injure or overwork the muscles in the lower arm. Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the ulnar nerve within the forearm from these types of movements can lead to problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome. There are also many forms of nerve and artery damage and disease that can affect the forearm muscle. Peripheral artery disease and peripheral neuropathy can both affect nerve transmission within the forearm. 

Many people will work to strengthen and tone their forearm muscles to help improve the movements of the forearm for various activities. Many athletes like baseball players, football players, gymnasts and golfers for example rely heavily on the use of the forearm muscles. There are many different types of exercise that can be used to strengthen the forearms for these purposes. Many bodybuilders work of their forearms muscles as part of their entire workout program.

While the forearm as a whole may be an often overlooked part of the body, it really is an amazing piece of human anatomy. The forearm muscles are responsible for almost all of the hand movements and the various types of activities the hands can perform. Without the use of working forearm muscles, it would be impossible to play a guitar, write words, swing a golf club, lift heavy weights or even slap a high five. The forearm is a wonder display of how muscles, bones, nerves and tendons can all come together to form a working tool.